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User fees and other non-tax revenue provide a minimal support to New Jersey local governments and can only be used for certain specified purposes. They cannot, by State law, be used to offset the costs of most services, such as police protection, snow removal, public education or maintenance of public facilities. Furthermore, user fees limit the availability of services for those who cannot afford to pay.
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The amount of property tax relief funding that municipalities get from the State - the vast majority of which is raised from the Income Tax and from utility taxes that were formerly collected by municipalities - directly affects the level of public services in your community and the amount of property taxes that you pay.
When your property tax bill goes up and municipal services don’t meet your needs, ask your State Legislators and the Governor if the State is providing your home town with adequate financial aid. Municipal property tax relief funding can help to pay for the local services you need and can keep your property taxes from going up - again.
State government and local governments share responsibilities and resources. Both the State and local governments (municipalities, counties and school districts) must provide a variety of important public services. But the ability of each of these levels of government differs greatly.
Unlike the State, local governments have few revenue options available to pay for services. This has resulted in the continued heavy reliance on property taxation as the major source of revenue for municipalities, counties and school districts. Because the value of property varies widely from municipality to municipality, many local governments are unable to meet local service needs.
View our Taxpayer dollar explanation document (PDF).
Municipalities, counties and school districts need enough money to pay for the many essential services that they provide. Paying for and providing many of these services (including, for example, education, transportation, law enforcement and environmental protection) is a joint responsibility of state government and local governments. But New Jersey local governments are not only responsible for delivering most of these services; they also bear the primary responsibility for financing them.
In the area of education, for example, local property taxpayers pay most of the costs, even though the State has a Constitutional obligation to ensure a thorough and efficient education for all of our children. Historically, the State’s share of K-12 public school expenditures is around 40%. State law limits how local governments can raise money. Other than State and Federal funding, New Jersey local governments have only property taxes and limited user fees (charges imposed upon residents and businesses that use or receive a specific service).
We call it municipal property tax relief funding, and not “State aid,” for this reason: the lion’s share of the money that municipalities receive from the State is a replacement for funds that were originally direct sources of municipal revenue. From Public Utility Gross Receipts and Franchise Taxes, now distributed as Energy Tax Receipts Property Tax Relief, to Business Personal Property Taxes, Financial Business Taxes and Class II Railroad Property Taxes, all of which have been folded into Consolidated Municipal Property Tax Relief Aid, these revenues were intended for municipal use from their beginnings. When the State, at the request and for the convenience of the taxpaying businesses, became the collection agent for these taxes, it pledged to redistribute the funds back to local governments.
So, from our perspective, these do not constitute new “aid” from the Treasurer of New Jersey. Instead, we see them as local revenues, temporarily displaced. View this related page for similar information.
According to State sources, in Fiscal Year 2001, the State provided municipalities with about $1.604 billion in general property tax relief funding. In the State’s last Fiscal Year (2005), the figure was around $1.682 billion (which includes $2.5 million in Taxpayer Hero Grants that were appropriated, but never distributed). Though we appreciate the State’s struggle to provide a little less than a 5% increase in tough budgetary times; at about half the rate of inflation, that’s hardly enough to help us to stem the property tax crisis.
The property tax accounts for over 40% of total State and local tax revenue in our State. The National average is just slightly above 30%. In 2002, the New Jersey per capita property tax burden amounted to $1,887 - almost doubling the National average of $979. New Jersey property taxes equaled 5%, as a percentage of personal income - almost 2 points above the National average of 3.2%. And in our State, those with the least shoulder a disproportionate share of the burden. Households with incomes in the lowest 20 % pay 9.2% of their earnings in property taxes, while the wealthiest 20 % pay 3.6% of their income through this assessment.
Yes, but there is a limit to what can be reduced. Police salaries and benefits often represent the biggest components of municipal budgets. The salaries are often set by arbitrators, pursuant to State Law. And the post-retirement benefits are also often mandated by the State. Education costs make up the largest portion of the average property tax bill. And much of that is spent for compliance with State laws and regulations. New Jersey local officials make difficult choices to keep the lid on property taxes every year. Last year the statewide total county tax levy was $3.5 billion. The total municipal levy was $4.7 billion. The total school district levy was $10.2 billion. In 2003, the county levy was $3.1 billion. The municipal levy was $4 billion. The school levy was $8.8 billion.
Average property taxes for 2004, as calculated by the State’s Division of Local Government Services, increased by 6.33% over the 2003 average. And the average property tax rate actually decreased from 3.027 to 3.021. This restraint has been achieved despite the fact that a large percentage of municipal, school district and county spending is mandated by State law, such as these examples, much of this is largely removed from local control:
The underlying demand for local public services continues to increase, and the costs continue to rise with inflation and population growth. Without commensurate increases in relief funding, increases in property taxes are inevitable.
Yes. And they are doing so. No municipal official wants to raise taxes. In addition to their commitment to their constituents, they are also motivated by an enlightened self-interest (They pay property taxes, too.) and by a desire to remain in the public’s service beyond the next election. Local budgets are subject to intense public scrutiny. Inflation alone forces municipalities to spend more, just to maintain current service levels. But aside from inflation, local expenditures are driven by demographics. Public school enrollments are on the rise. And service demands related to the aging of the “baby boom” generation will also increase on into the future.
There are a number of ways, such as: